Fire rated doors are specialized doors that are designed and tested to provide protection against the spread of fire, smoke, and heat. They are an important element in passive fire protection systems and are used in buildings to compartmentalize areas and prevent the spread of fire from one area to another.
Fire rated doors are constructed with fire-resistant materials such as steel, gypsum, or vermiculite cores, and are usually fitted with intumescent strips or seals that expand when exposed to heat to provide an additional barrier against flames and smoke.
To be considered fire rated, doors must undergo rigorous testing and certification processes to ensure that they meet specific fire resistance standards, such as those set by organizations like Underwriters Laboratories (UL) or the British Standards Institution (BSI). The certification process involves subjecting the door to controlled fire and heat conditions for a specified period of time to evaluate its ability to withstand fire and prevent the spread of flames, smoke, and heat.
Fire rated doors are commonly used in commercial and industrial buildings, as well as in multi-family residential buildings, hospitals, schools, and other public buildings. They are often required by building codes and regulations to provide an additional layer of protection against fire hazards and help minimize the risk of property damage and loss of life in the event of a fire.
Fire Door Testing
Fire rated doors are tested in specialized laboratories using standardized test methods that are designed to simulate real-world fire conditions. The tests are conducted by trained technicians who follow specific procedures to ensure that the doors are subjected to consistent and repeatable conditions.
The most common test standards for fire rated doors are established by organizations like Underwriters Laboratories (UL) and the British Standards Institution (BSI), and they typically involve the following steps:
- Pre-test inspections: The door is inspected to ensure that it meets the manufacturer’s specifications and that it is installed correctly.
- Mounting: The door is mounted in a test furnace, which is designed to simulate a fire.
- Heat exposure: The furnace is heated to a specific temperature and the door is exposed to fire on one side.
- Hose stream test: After the door has been exposed to heat for a specified period of time, a hose stream is directed at the exposed side of the door to simulate the impact of firefighting efforts.
- Cooling period: The door is allowed to cool for a specified time period.
- Post-test inspections: The door is inspected again to determine if it has met the required standards for fire resistance, smoke and gas control, and structural integrity. Based on the results of the tests, fire rated doors are given a rating or a classification that indicates their level of fire resistance. This rating is typically expressed in terms of the number of minutes that the door can withstand exposure to fire. These listings include 20-minute, 45-minute, 60-minute, 90-minute, and 3-hour.
Fire-Rated Door Hardware
Fire rated doors require specific types of hardware that have been tested and certified to ensure that they maintain the fire resistance integrity of the door. The specific hardware requirements may vary depending on the rating of the door, the building code requirements, and the type of building in which the door is installed. Some of the most common types of hardware required on a fire rated door include:d the type of building in which the door is installed. Some of the most common types of hardware required on a fire rated door include:
- Door Closers: A door closer is used to ensure that the door closes and latches automatically, which helps to prevent the spread of fire and smoke.
- Locksets: A lockset is a door handle or knob that is used to secure the door. Fire rated doors require locksets that have been tested and certified for fire resistance.
- Hinges: Hinges are the hardware that attach the door to the frame. Fire rated doors require hinges that are made of a material that can withstand high temperatures and have been tested for fire resistance.
- Panic Hardware: Panic hardware is a type of hardware that allows a door to be opened quickly in the event of an emergency. Fire rated doors require panic hardware that has been tested and certified for fire resistance.
- Smoke Seals: Smoke seals are strips of material that are installed around the perimeter of the door to help prevent the spread of smoke. Fire rated doors require smoke seals that have been tested and certified for fire resistance.
- Intumescent Seals: Intumescent seals are strips of material that expand when exposed to heat to provide additional protection against flames and smoke. Fire rated doors require intumescent seals that have been tested and certified for fire resistance.
- It’s important to note that all hardware installed on a fire rated door must be compatible with the door’s fire rating and have been tested and certified for use with fire rated doors. It is recommended that all hardware be installed by a qualified professional to ensure that it is installed correctly and maintains the fire resistance of the door.
When are Fire-Rated Doors Needed?
Whether or not you need a fire rated door depends on a variety of factors, including building codes and regulations, the intended use of the building or space, and the specific fire safety requirements of your industry or business. Here are some situations where you may need a fire rated door:
- Building codes and regulations: Many building codes and regulations require fire rated doors in certain locations, such as stairwells, corridors, and fire-rated partitions. If you are building a new structure or renovating an existing one, you should consult with local building authorities to determine if fire rated doors are required.
- Occupancy type: The occupancy type of a building or space can influence the need for fire rated doors. For example, apartment buildings, office buildings, hotels, schools, hospitals, and commercial buildings typically require fire rated doors to help protect occupants from fire and smoke.
- Industry-specific regulations: Some industries have specific regulations that require fire rated doors, such as warehouses that store flammable materials or manufacturing facilities that use fire or heat in their processes.
- Insurance requirements: Your insurance company may require fire rated doors as a condition of coverage, especially if you are storing valuable or flammable materials in your building.
- Peace of mind: Even if fire rated doors are not required by building codes or regulations, you may choose to install them for added protection and peace of mind. Fire rated doors can help slow the spread of fire and smoke, giving occupants more time to evacuate the building and reducing property damage.
If you are unsure whether or not you need fire rated doors, it’s always best to consult with a fire safety professional who can assess your building or space and make recommendations based on your specific needs and requirements.
- Cutting: Roll form steel is cut to size using a machine or a metal shear.
- Forming: The pre-cut sheet metal is then passed through a series of rollers to bend them into shape. This often includes forming the internal frame of the door, creating hinge reinforcements, and forming channels that will provide structural integrity and support hardware installation.
- Welding: The various components of the internal door framing are welded together. This creates a strong, rigid frame that will surround the core of the door.
- Assembly: The internal door frame, hardware reinforcements and core are assembled. A single sheet of metal is wrapped around the unit and adjoined with welds and in some cases an interlocking seam. Internal core components are typically bonded to the inside of the door skin with a chemical or heating process.
- Finishing: The doors are then finished with primer, paint, or other coatings that protect against rust and corrosion.
- Hardware installation: Holes are drilled and cut into the door for the installation of hinges, locks, and other hardware components.
- Testing: The finished doors are then tested to ensure that they meet the quality standards for structural integrity, durability, and in some cases fire resistance.
- Once the doors have passed testing and quality control checks, they are packaged and shipped to the customer for installation. Hollow metal doors are commonly used in commercial and industrial applications for their strength, durability, fire resistance and longevity properties.